A Glance at the History of Iran
Iranian plateau, one of the wide table-lands of Asia, is bordered on the south by the Persian Gulf and the sea of Oman, on the north by the Caspian Sea, on the west by the western slopes of Zagros Mountains and region of the Arvand River, and on the east by the western mountains of Pamir range. The total area of Iran is 1,650,000 km2 of which about 320,000 km2 are arable, 180,000 km2 are inland lakes and water bodies and the rest is composed, to a large extent, of mountains surrounding the saline, sandy, and rocky deserts of the central plateau. From ancient times similar dialects known as the Iranian languages and a common culture have been dominated in this area. Before the migration of Iranian Aryans to this plateau the inhabitants were of various ethnic groups, but similar cultures.
Among these inhabitants, about whom we possess limited knowledge were the Elamites, who brought into existence a remarkable, civilization approximately 4000 years B.C. It was in Ecbatana known today as Hamadan that the first empire of the historical period of the western and central regions of Iran was established by Dayaukku in 708 B.C. By overthrowing the Assyrian Empire, the medes brought into existence during their one and a half centuries of power, a great country extending from the south of Iran to parts of Asia Minor. The Median Empire fell 158 years after its foundation by the Achaemenian. In this period many of the inhuman customs of the ancient world such as pillage of lands, massacre, destroying places of worship imposing religious beliefs on conquered people and sacrificing human beings to idols, were eliminated. For the first time, organized institutions based on systematic laws and regulations were established and put into effect equally for all nations.
The Achaemenians were characterized by their love of freedom and their nobility, their respect for the religions and beliefs of other and their utilization of various talents and abilities of vassal states. In the fifth, sixth, and seventh centuries A.D. numerous Zorostarian, Manichean, Christian centers of learning existed in Iran, which busily engaged in one way or another with various scientific and philosophical questions, such as those concerned with the ancient Iranian wisdom, Neoplotonic philosophy, Aristotelian logic and science, medicine, mathematics, astronomy and astrology.
The new era of Iranian history began after the Islamic Revaluation in 1979, which Imam Khomeini inaugurated a turning point of Iranian long history. He was a figure who belongs to the collective memory of the entire muslim word. Political aspects of Imam Khomeini’s overshadowed his other facts. As a consequence, his scholarship in other fields of humanity is reminded in obscurity. Imam Khomeini was an authority in Figh, Islamic philosophy, mysticism, as well as poetry. He was a sign of Allah, who was emptied and purified of any individual volition, who was motivated and determined by the love of Allah. By his desire to serve Allah, by his wish to submerge himself in obedience to Allah, he achieved this high state. It is obvious that with in Iranian society, more than any other figure in modern times an ever pre-modern times, he was able to address a wide section of the people. He had the unique ability to express himself in accordance with the needs of any given audience. Finally the more we study imam’s thoughts and works his advices and declarations, the more we realize the great thinker and leader he was.
Welcome to Tehran
Covering an area of 1500 square kilometers, Tehran is situated in the north-central part of Iran, on the slope of the Alborz Mountains. As the national capital it is the most populated city in Iran and the center of cultural, economic, political and social activities. It is about 1200 meters above sea level and enjoys a mild climate.
The word Tehran can be found even in some books dating back to the 10th century. It was a village containing numerous gardens in the distant past. Its importance began to increase in the Safavi period (1501-1736). Shah Tahmasp, the king of Iran from 1524 to 1576, was fascinated by the climate of Tehran, as a result of which many buildings including caravansaries were founded. He also built 114 (the number of the chapters in Quran) towers around the city. In the reign of Agha Mohammad Khan, the founder of the Qajar dynasty (1776-1925), when Tehran was chosen as the capital of Iran, it enjoyed a boom. The building founded by Naser od-Din Shah, king of Iran (848-1896) gave it a high position among the other cities. A ditch was dug around the city to repel attacks on it, twelve gates were built as the approaches to the city, and a large square, now called “Tupkhaneh” and the buildings around were founded. After the Qajar period, two architectural trends developed an imitation of western styles that had little relevance to Tehran’s climate and an attempt to revive indigenous designs.
The mountainous areas near the city, the most important of which are “Darakeh” and “Tochal” enjoying fresh air and lush vegetation, attract large numbers of people at weekends. In “Tochal” mountion (3960 meters), to the north of the city, there are skiing course and cable railways for traveling up and down.
The Alborz range, lying in the north of the province, includes the highest volcanic peak in Iran, called “Qolle-ye Damavand” (5671 meters). The largest rivers of the province are Jajrud and Karaj across which two dams have been built.
Parks of Tehran contain lakes, facilities for boating and amusement, and restaurants are of great attraction. The museums of Tehran containing numerous invaluable articles are among the most prominent points of interest. The palace-museums of Golestan and Sa’dabad (consisting of anthropological, military, artistic and natural museums), and the museums of Ancient Iran, contemporary Arts, Jewels (in which Kuh-e Nur diamond and the Peacock Throne are kept) Pottery and Glass, and Wildlife museum of Darabad are really worth-while visiting.
The LTBD 2017 conference will take place in the IRIB International Conference Center.
JameJam St., Valiasr Ave., TEHRAN, IRAN
GPS coordinates: 35.7874° N, 51.4085° E